The Navajo or Diné, Nation covers parts of Arizona, New Mexico and Utah. Diné Bikéyah (link), or Navajoland, is larger than 10 of the 50 states in America. The Diné in Arizona live north of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff.
Navajo weavers (link) have long been known for their beautiful hand-woven rugs.
According to Kathy Hooker in her book, Time Among the Navajo, it takes 2 months to make a single rug. Many Navajo families raise their own sheep. After the weather warms in the Spring, the women and children will catch and shear a sheep by hand, using shears. Then the wool must be cleaned by shaking and washing in a wash tub. The wool is rinsed in cold water several times, and then washed with soap in warm water heated in a kettle on the stove. After rinsing again, the wool is hung on a fence to dry. Carding commences when the wool is dry, using wooden paddles with metal teeth to pull the wool and straighten the fibers. Typically it will take 2 weeks to card enough wool for a single rug. The batts of wool pulled from the teeth of the cards are spun into yarn using a twirling spindle. Another two weeks can be spent on spinning. Once spun into yarn, the yarn is washed again and is wrapped from one fence post to another to dry. The weaver will have planned her design which she holds in memory, and she knows what colors of yarn she needs to create that pattern. The wool may be dyed from plant dyes or some store-bought colors, especially red. For black and white, the natural wool is used. Brown is created by boiling wild walnuts. Bark, roots and fruit of other plants are used to make additional colors. It will take 3 weeks of constant work to complete the tightly-woven rug.
The weaving loom is an upright design.
No two Navajo rugs are alike. The place of origin for a rug typically determines the type of design. The Navajo Reservation can be divided into 13 weaving regions. There are other distinctive designs as well. If you wish to purchase a Navajo rug, choose a reputable dealer or trading post so that you can enjoy an authentic Navajo rug.
Arizona is a geological laboratory because the natural forces in play are so visible. Erosion is a general term for the weathering of rocks and the transportation of them. The forces of erosion are gravity, ice, water and wind.
The San Francisco Mountain in Flagstaff is a strato-volcano in the midst of a volcanic field of over 600 smaller volcanos. This largest volcano is now 12, 633 feet in elevation, but it is estimated it reached 16,000 feet before a sideways eruption or glacial erosion, or both, collapsed or carved out the northeastern side of the mountain.
You can see green lichen growing on this large basalt boulder at the base of Mount Elden in Flagstaff. Weathering and erosion from the lichen, rain, snow, and freezing winter temperatures have and cracked the boulder in half.
In the mesa shown below, you can see how the soft sedimentary layers at the top have been weathered away by wind and water and gravity has piled it around the bottom.
Wind is a powerful force in erosion as you can see in the photo of Tsegi Canyon below where it hollows out the sedimentary rock.
Water helps to carry away the debris weathered from the higher elevations and the grit and sand in the water help to erode more rocks as it passes.
The classic Arizona erosion example is the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River.